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How to make an AJAX call without jQuery?

discky
1#
discky Published in 2011-12-19 20:27:46Z

How to make an AJAX call using JavaScript, without using jQuery?

3nigma
2#
3nigma Reply to 2011-12-19 20:30:30Z
 var xhReq = new XMLHttpRequest();
 xhReq.open("GET", "sumGet.phtml?figure1=5&figure2=10", false);
 xhReq.send(null);
 var serverResponse = xhReq.responseText;
 alert(serverResponse); // Shows "15"

http://ajaxpatterns.org/XMLHttpRequest_Call

zb226
3#
zb226 Reply to 2017-10-12 08:09:01Z

With "vanilla" JavaScript:

<script type="text/javascript">
function loadXMLDoc() {
    var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();

    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xmlhttp.readyState == XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {   // XMLHttpRequest.DONE == 4
           if (xmlhttp.status == 200) {
               document.getElementById("myDiv").innerHTML = xmlhttp.responseText;
           }
           else if (xmlhttp.status == 400) {
              alert('There was an error 400');
           }
           else {
               alert('something else other than 200 was returned');
           }
        }
    };

    xmlhttp.open("GET", "ajax_info.txt", true);
    xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>

With jQuery:

$.ajax({
    url: "test.html",
    context: document.body,
    success: function(){
      $(this).addClass("done");
    }
});
Vosobe Kapsimanis
4#
Vosobe Kapsimanis Reply to 2011-12-19 20:31:20Z
<html>
  <script>
    var xmlDoc = null ;

  function load() {
    if (typeof window.ActiveXObject != 'undefined' ) {
      xmlDoc = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
      xmlDoc.onreadystatechange = process ;
    }
    else {
      xmlDoc = new XMLHttpRequest();
      xmlDoc.onload = process ;
    }
    xmlDoc.open( "GET", "background.html", true );
    xmlDoc.send( null );
  }

  function process() {
    if ( xmlDoc.readyState != 4 ) return ;
    document.getElementById("output").value = xmlDoc.responseText ;
  }

  function empty() {
    document.getElementById("output").value = '<empty>' ;
  }
</script>

<body>
  <textarea id="output" cols='70' rows='40'><empty></textarea>
  <br></br>
  <button onclick="load()">Load</button> &nbsp;
  <button onclick="empty()">Clear</button>
</body>
</html>
99freebies.blogspot.com
5#
99freebies.blogspot.com Reply to 2013-08-06 11:11:46Z

HTML :

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <script>
    function loadXMLDoc()
    {
    var xmlhttp;
    if (window.XMLHttpRequest)
      {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
      xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
      }
    else
      {// code for IE6, IE5
      xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
      }
    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function()
      {
      if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200)
        {
        document.getElementById("myDiv").innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText;
        }
      }
    xmlhttp.open("GET","1.php?id=99freebies.blogspot.com",true);
    xmlhttp.send();
    }
    </script>
    </head>
    <body>

    <div id="myDiv"><h2>Let AJAX change this text</h2></div>
    <button type="button" onclick="loadXMLDoc()">Change Content</button>

    </body>
    </html>

PHP:

<?php

$id = $_GET[id];
print "$id";

?>
Mike
6#
Mike Reply to 2016-02-08 18:58:40Z

Using the following snippet you can do similar things pretty easily, like this:

ajax.get('/test.php', {foo: 'bar'}, function() {});

Here is the snippet:

var ajax = {};
ajax.x = function () {
    if (typeof XMLHttpRequest !== 'undefined') {
        return new XMLHttpRequest();
    }
    var versions = [
        "MSXML2.XmlHttp.6.0",
        "MSXML2.XmlHttp.5.0",
        "MSXML2.XmlHttp.4.0",
        "MSXML2.XmlHttp.3.0",
        "MSXML2.XmlHttp.2.0",
        "Microsoft.XmlHttp"
    ];

    var xhr;
    for (var i = 0; i < versions.length; i++) {
        try {
            xhr = new ActiveXObject(versions[i]);
            break;
        } catch (e) {
        }
    }
    return xhr;
};

ajax.send = function (url, callback, method, data, async) {
    if (async === undefined) {
        async = true;
    }
    var x = ajax.x();
    x.open(method, url, async);
    x.onreadystatechange = function () {
        if (x.readyState == 4) {
            callback(x.responseText)
        }
    };
    if (method == 'POST') {
        x.setRequestHeader('Content-type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
    }
    x.send(data)
};

ajax.get = function (url, data, callback, async) {
    var query = [];
    for (var key in data) {
        query.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(data[key]));
    }
    ajax.send(url + (query.length ? '?' + query.join('&') : ''), callback, 'GET', null, async)
};

ajax.post = function (url, data, callback, async) {
    var query = [];
    for (var key in data) {
        query.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(data[key]));
    }
    ajax.send(url, callback, 'POST', query.join('&'), async)
};
AbdelHady
7#
AbdelHady Reply to 2017-04-13 18:17:10Z

You can use the following function:

function callAjax(url, callback){
    var xmlhttp;
    // compatible with IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function(){
        if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200){
            callback(xmlhttp.responseText);
        }
    }
    xmlhttp.open("GET", url, true);
    xmlhttp.send();
}

You can try similar solutions online on these links:

  • https://www.w3schools.com/xml/tryit.asp?filename=tryajax_first
  • https://www.w3schools.com/xml/tryit.asp?filename=tryajax_callback
brunops
8#
brunops Reply to 2013-09-25 02:26:14Z

You can get the correct object according to the browser with

function getXmlDoc() {
  var xmlDoc;

  if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlDoc = new XMLHttpRequest();
  }
  else {
    // code for IE6, IE5
    xmlDoc = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
  }

  return xmlDoc;
}

With the correct object, a GET might can be abstracted to:

function myGet(url, callback) {
  var xmlDoc = getXmlDoc();

  xmlDoc.open('GET', url, true);

  xmlDoc.onreadystatechange = function() {
    if (xmlDoc.readyState === 4 && xmlDoc.status === 200) {
      callback(xmlDoc);
    }
  }

  xmlDoc.send();
}

And a POST to:

function myPost(url, data, callback) {
  var xmlDoc = getXmlDoc();

  xmlDoc.open('POST', url, true);
  xmlDoc.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");

  xmlDoc.onreadystatechange = function() {
    if (xmlDoc.readyState === 4 && xmlDoc.status === 200) {
      callback(xmlDoc);
    }
  }

  xmlDoc.send(data);
}
Ashish Kumar
9#
Ashish Kumar Reply to 2013-11-29 18:49:16Z

This may help:

function doAjax(url, callback) {
    var xmlhttp = window.XMLHttpRequest ? new XMLHttpRequest() : new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");

    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
            callback(xmlhttp.responseText);
        }
    }

    xmlhttp.open("GET", url, true);
    xmlhttp.send();
}
tfont
10#
tfont Reply to 2014-02-25 22:17:18Z

A small combination from a couple of the examples below and created this simple piece:

function ajax(url, method, data, async)
{
    method = typeof method !== 'undefined' ? method : 'GET';
    async = typeof async !== 'undefined' ? async : false;

    if (window.XMLHttpRequest)
    {
        var xhReq = new XMLHttpRequest();
    }
    else
    {
        var xhReq = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
    }


    if (method == 'POST')
    {
        xhReq.open(method, url, async);
        xhReq.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        xhReq.setRequestHeader("X-Requested-With", "XMLHttpRequest");
        xhReq.send(data);
    }
    else
    {
        if(typeof data !== 'undefined' && data !== null)
        {
            url = url+'?'+data;
        }
        xhReq.open(method, url, async);
        xhReq.setRequestHeader("X-Requested-With", "XMLHttpRequest");
        xhReq.send(null);
    }
    //var serverResponse = xhReq.responseText;
    //alert(serverResponse);
}

// Example usage below (using a string query):

ajax('http://www.google.com');
ajax('http://www.google.com', 'POST', 'q=test');

OR if your parameters are object(s) - minor additional code adjustment:

var parameters = {
    q: 'test'
}

var query = [];
for (var key in parameters)
{
    query.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(parameters[key]));
}

ajax('http://www.google.com', 'POST', query.join('&'));

Both should be fully browser + version compatible.

Aligned
11#
Aligned Reply to 2014-10-10 15:07:20Z

I was looking for away to include promises with ajax and exclude jQuery. There's an article on HTML5 Rocks that talks about ES6 promises (could polyfill with a promise library like Q) then use the code snippet that I copied from the article.

function get(url) {
  // Return a new promise.
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    // Do the usual XHR stuff
    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    req.open('GET', url);

    req.onload = function() {
      // This is called even on 404 etc
      // so check the status
      if (req.status == 200) {
        // Resolve the promise with the response text
        resolve(req.response);
      }
      else {
        // Otherwise reject with the status text
        // which will hopefully be a meaningful error
        reject(Error(req.statusText));
      }
    };

    // Handle network errors
    req.onerror = function() {
      reject(Error("Network Error"));
    };

    // Make the request
    req.send();
  });
}

Note: I also wrote an article about this.

Lonnie Best
12#
Lonnie Best Reply to 2015-12-17 19:33:58Z

If you don't want to include JQuery, I'd try out some lightweight AJAX libraries.

My favorite is reqwest. It's only 3.4kb and very well built out: https://github.com/ded/Reqwest

Here's a sample GET request with reqwest:

reqwest({
    url: url,
    method: 'GET',
    type: 'json',
    success: onSuccess
});

Now if you want something even more lightweight, I'd try microAjax at a mere 0.4kb: https://code.google.com/p/microajax/

This is all the code right here:

function microAjax(B,A){this.bindFunction=function(E,D){return function(){return E.apply(D,[D])}};this.stateChange=function(D){if(this.request.readyState==4){this.callbackFunction(this.request.responseText)}};this.getRequest=function(){if(window.ActiveXObject){return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")}else{if(window.XMLHttpRequest){return new XMLHttpRequest()}}return false};this.postBody=(arguments[2]||"");this.callbackFunction=A;this.url=B;this.request=this.getRequest();if(this.request){var C=this.request;C.onreadystatechange=this.bindFunction(this.stateChange,this);if(this.postBody!==""){C.open("POST",B,true);C.setRequestHeader("X-Requested-With","XMLHttpRequest");C.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/x-www-form-urlencoded");C.setRequestHeader("Connection","close")}else{C.open("GET",B,true)}C.send(this.postBody)}};

And here's a sample call:

microAjax(url, onSuccess);
steven iseki
13#
steven iseki Reply to 2015-04-27 05:26:32Z

in plain JavaScript in the browser:

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();

xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
  if (xhr.readyState == XMLHttpRequest.DONE ) {
    if(xhr.status == 200){
      console.log(xhr.responseText);
    } else if(xhr.status == 400) {
      console.log('There was an error 400');
    } else {
      console.log('something else other than 200 was returned');
    }
  }
}

xhr.open("GET", "mock_data.json", true);

xhr.send();

Or if you want to use Browserify to bundle your modules up using node.js. You can use superagent:

var request = require('superagent');
var url = '/mock_data.json';

 request
   .get(url)
   .end(function(err, res){
     if (res.ok) {
       console.log('yay got ' + JSON.stringify(res.body));
     } else {
       console.log('Oh no! error ' + res.text);
     }
 });
Rimian
14#
Rimian Reply to 2015-05-18 01:18:07Z

Here's a JSFiffle without JQuery

http://jsfiddle.net/rimian/jurwre07/

function loadXMLDoc() {
    var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
    var url = 'http://echo.jsontest.com/key/value/one/two';

    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function () {
        if (xmlhttp.readyState == XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
            if (xmlhttp.status == 200) {
                document.getElementById("myDiv").innerHTML = xmlhttp.responseText;
            } else if (xmlhttp.status == 400) {
                console.log('There was an error 400');
            } else {
                console.log('something else other than 200 was returned');
            }
        }
    };

    xmlhttp.open("GET", url, true);
    xmlhttp.send();
};

loadXMLDoc();
Prateek Joshi
15#
Prateek Joshi Reply to 2015-06-21 10:29:22Z

Well it is just a 4 step easy proceess,

I hope it helps

Step 1. Store the reference to the XMLHttpRequest object

var xmlHttp = createXmlHttpRequestObject();

Step 2. Retrieve the XMLHttpRequest object

function createXmlHttpRequestObject() {
    // will store the reference to the XMLHttpRequest object
    var xmlHttp;
    // if running Internet Explorer
    if (window.ActiveXObject) {
        try {
            xmlHttp = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
        } catch (e) {
            xmlHttp = false;
        }
    }
    // if running Mozilla or other browsers
    else {
        try {
            xmlHttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
        } catch (e) {
            xmlHttp = false;
        }
    }
    // return the created object or display an error message
    if (!xmlHttp)
        alert("Error creating the XMLHttpRequest object.");
    else
        return xmlHttp;
}

Step 3. Make asynchronous HTTP request using the XMLHttpRequest object

function process() {
    // proceed only if the xmlHttp object isn't busy
    if (xmlHttp.readyState == 4 || xmlHttp.readyState == 0) {
        // retrieve the name typed by the user on the form
        item = encodeURIComponent(document.getElementById("input_item").value);
        // execute the your_file.php page from the server
        xmlHttp.open("GET", "your_file.php?item=" + item, true);
        // define the method to handle server responses
        xmlHttp.onreadystatechange = handleServerResponse;
        // make the server request
        xmlHttp.send(null);
    }
}

Step 4. Executed automatically when a message is received from the server

function handleServerResponse() {

    // move forward only if the transaction has completed
    if (xmlHttp.readyState == 4) {
        // status of 200 indicates the transaction completed successfully
        if (xmlHttp.status == 200) {
            // extract the XML retrieved from the server
            xmlResponse = xmlHttp.responseText;
            document.getElementById("put_response").innerHTML = xmlResponse;
            // restart sequence
        }
        // a HTTP status different than 200 signals an error
        else {
            alert("There was a problem accessing the server: " + xmlHttp.statusText);
        }
    }
}
Will Munn
16#
Will Munn Reply to 2015-08-12 22:01:47Z

I know this is a fairly old question, but there is now a nicer API available natively in newer browsers. The fetch() method allow you to make web requests. For example, to request some json from /get-data:

var opts = {
  method: 'GET',
  body: 'json',
  headers: {}
};
fetch('/get-data', opts).then(function (response) {
  return response.json();
})
.then(function (body) {
  //doSomething with body;
});

See here for more details.

Ogalb
17#
Ogalb Reply to 2015-09-28 05:18:18Z

Old but I will try, maybe someone will find this info useful.

This is the minimal amount of code you need to do a GET request and fetch some JSON formatted data. This is applicable only to modern browsers like latest versions of Chrome, FF, Safari, Opera and Microsoft Edge.

const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open('GET', 'https://example.com/data.json'); // by default async 
xhr.responseType = 'json'; // in which format you expect the response to be


xhr.onload = function() {
  if(this.status == 200) {// onload called even on 404 etc so check the status
   console.log(this.response); // No need for JSON.parse()
  }
};

xhr.onerror = function() {
  // error 
};


xhr.send();

Also check out new Fetch API which is a promise-based replacement for XMLHttpRequest API.

Nova
18#
Nova Reply to 2016-07-11 02:38:25Z

Using @Petah answer above as a huge help resource. I've written my own AJAX module here called AJ for short: https://github.com/NightfallAlicorn/AJ Not everything is tested yet but it works for me with get and post for JSON. You're free to copy and use the source as you wish. I hadn't seen a marked accepted answer yet so I presume this is okay to post.

Rotareti
19#
Rotareti Reply to 2016-12-06 09:59:19Z

How about this version in plain ES6/ES2015?

function get(url) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    req.open('GET', url);
    req.onload = () => req.status === 200 ? resolve(req.response) : reject(Error(req.statusText));
    req.onerror = (e) => reject(Error(`Network Error: ${e}`));
    req.send();
  });
}

The function returns a promise. Here is an example on how to use the function and handle the promise it returns:

get('foo.txt')
.then((data) => {
  // Do stuff with data, if foo.txt was successfully loaded.
})
.catch((err) => {
  // Do stuff on error...
});

If you need to load a json file you can use JSON.parse() to convert the loaded data into an JS Object.

You can also integrate req.responseType='json' into the function but unfortunately there is no IE support for it, so I would stick with JSON.parse().

karthik pyrate
20#
karthik pyrate Reply to 2017-12-04 17:23:39Z
var load_process = false;
function ajaxCall(param, response) {

 if (load_process == true) {
     return;
 }
 else
 { 
  if (param.async == undefined) {
     param.async = true;
 }
 if (param.async == false) {
         load_process = true;
     }
 var xhr;

 xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();

 if (param.type != "GET") {
     xhr.open(param.type, param.url, true);

     if (param.processData != undefined && param.processData == false && param.contentType != undefined && param.contentType == false) {
     }
     else if (param.contentType != undefined || param.contentType == true) {
         xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', param.contentType);
     }
     else {
         xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
     }


 }
 else {
     xhr.open(param.type, param.url + "?" + obj_param(param.data));
 }

 xhr.onprogress = function (loadTime) {
     if (param.progress != undefined) {
         param.progress({ loaded: loadTime.loaded }, "success");
     }
 }
 xhr.ontimeout = function () {
     this.abort();
     param.success("timeout", "timeout");
     load_process = false;
 };

 xhr.onerror = function () {
     param.error(xhr.responseText, "error");
     load_process = false;
 };

 xhr.onload = function () {
    if (xhr.status === 200) {
         if (param.dataType != undefined && param.dataType == "json") {

             param.success(JSON.parse(xhr.responseText), "success");
         }
         else {
             param.success(JSON.stringify(xhr.responseText), "success");
         }
     }
     else if (xhr.status !== 200) {
         param.error(xhr.responseText, "error");

     }
     load_process = false;
 };
 if (param.data != null || param.data != undefined) {
     if (param.processData != undefined && param.processData == false && param.contentType != undefined && param.contentType == false) {
             xhr.send(param.data);

     }
     else {
             xhr.send(obj_param(param.data));

     }
 }
 else {
         xhr.send();

 }
 if (param.timeout != undefined) {
     xhr.timeout = param.timeout;
 }
 else
{
 xhr.timeout = 20000;
}
 this.abort = function (response) {

     if (XMLHttpRequest != null) {
         xhr.abort();
         load_process = false;
         if (response != undefined) {
             response({ status: "success" });
         }
     }

 }
 }
 }

function obj_param(obj) {
var parts = [];
for (var key in obj) {
    if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
        parts.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(obj[key]));
    }
}
return parts.join('&');
}

my ajax call

  var my_ajax_call=ajaxCall({
    url: url,
    type: method,
    data: {data:value},
    dataType: 'json',
    async:false,//synchronous request. Default value is true 
    timeout:10000,//default timeout 20000
    progress:function(loadTime,status)
    {
    console.log(loadTime);
     },
    success: function (result, status) {
      console.log(result);
    },
      error :function(result,status)
    {
    console.log(result);
     }
      });

for abort previous requests

      my_ajax_call.abort(function(result){
       console.log(result);
       });
Mikel
21#
Mikel Reply to 2017-07-24 15:54:22Z

From youMightNotNeedJquery.com + JSON.stringify

var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('POST', '/my/url', true);
request.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8');
request.send(JSON.stringify(data));
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